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Javier Pastore for EUR 42 million in 2011, Thiago Silva for 49 million in 2012, Radamel Falcao for 60 million last May and Edinson Cavani to 63 million, this Wednesday. In two years, the largest transfer of Ligue 1 title changed hands four times, symbol of a deregulated market where more and more major players are competing to find the rare bird. Such astronomical amounts however pose several questions.

How you fixed the price of a transfer?

As a car or an apartment, a footballer has a theoretical price and actual price. The first depends on several parameters: its age, its status - is international or not? -or his contractual situation - is at the end of contract or not? 31 years old and whose contract expired in 2015. in Milan, was bought by the PSG «that» EUR 20 million and Cavani, five years younger and contracted in Naples until 2016, three times more expensive. "That it does not pay in transfer, the postpone his payday", explains Vincent Chandler, Kurt Salmon consultant. Swedish is indeed the player the highest paid of Ligue 1 with 14 million euros net per year.

Why transfers are often raised with the South American players?

Unlike the Europeans, South American footballers do not only belong to their club. But also to companies who hold a part or all of the image of the player rights. During the negotiations, these companies to get the best price, can inflate the transfer. Not to mention the football agents, who are paid between 5% and 10% of the salary of the player or the amount of the sale.

"This is the wage that reflects the talent of the footballer"

Vincent Chandler, consultant with Kurt Salmon

the transfer pricing reflects the true value of the player?

The 'real' said price of the player is not completely. "Today, it's more salary than the transfer price that reflects the talent of the player", says Vincent Chandler. In addition to the value of the player, it gives, on the one hand, an indication on resale expectancy. More the player is close to the retirement, less his transfer price will be high. And vice versa. On the other hand, it reflects the situation of a market where the balance of power is reversed in favour of the footballer at the expense of the clubs. "Before the Bosman *, few clubs have the means to buy stars, says Vincent Chandler. '' "Today, they are more numerous and footballers, especially stars, have a choice."

Why this "cascade" exorbitant transfers?

Like any activity, football is globalized. He welcomed new entrants coming from Russia or the Middle East, which have increased competition. Players can thus raising the stakes between the clubs. And as these big investors have often unlimited financial means, they no longer hesitate to invest a lot of money for players who will attract more broadcasters, sponsors, spectators and will sell more shirts and other derivatives. The case of David Beckham is even more striking. Recruited in January, any young retired, who decided to donate his salary to two associations, nothing cost transfer to PSG. Conversely, has earned it nearly EUR 6 million in swimwear, on which the British hit 20%.

Can we regulate the transfer market?

The UEFA and Fifa are working. The European football association seeks to control spending of clubs with his "financial fair play" (a measure that requires European football teams to balance their accounts). Once is not custom, the European Commission also looked at the folder. Brussels considering to impose a tax of between 5% and 8% on too high transfers - no minimum has yet been determined-, which would be repaid to less posh clubs. "Such a measure would be catastrophic for French football, meets Vincent Chandler. It could encourage owners of PSG and Monaco to withdraw and others not to come in France." Let us hope that Brussels will also want to avoid any agreement on prices between different European wealthy clubs.

* Decision of the European Court of justice on 15 December 1995, which gives the opportunity to a European move freely on the continent, as footballer any worker.

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